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ForwardOsmosisTech’s guide to measuring FO membrane performance

ForwardOsmosisTech has made an extensive guide on how to determine FO membrane performance in a standardized way And we're very proud of our most recent work. The guide covers the following topics: Membrane form...

ForwardOsmosisTech is proud to play a small role in the making of a Science...

What part of a forward osmosis system would be most vulnerable to sabotage? Confused? Fear not, the email below explains everything. About a week ago, ForwardOsmosisTech received a request for advice from...
FO mode vs PRO mode

The difference between a PRO process and the PRO membrane orientation mode

PRO process vs. PRO membrane orientation mode - a question from one of our readers   Recently, ForwardOsmosisTech received the following email from one our readers: Hi I'm really confused, and have one question about...
Membrane fouling in forward osmosis processes

Membrane fouling in forward osmosis (FO) processes is reversible

Membrane fouling in reverse osmosis and forward osmosis processes The difference in membrane fouling between reverse osmosis and forward osmosis processes can be attributed to the underlying driving force for water transport. In...
forward osmosis hollow fiber module

Hollow fiber forward osmosis membrane modules

Hollow fibre modules made from hollow fibre forward osmosis membranes Hollow fibre module summary Packing density up to 1600 m2/m3 Advantage ideally suitable for high volume applications due to high packing density and resulting small module...
forward osmosis spiral wound module

Spiral wound forward osmosis membrane modules

Spiral wound modules made from flat sheet forward osmosis membranes Spiral wound module summary Packing density up to 600 m2/m3 Advantage suitable for large-volume applications due to high packing density and resulting small membrane footprint Disadvantage membrane fouling...
forward osmosis tubular module

Tubular forward osmosis membrane modules

Tubular modules made from tubular forward osmosis membranes Tubular module summary Packing density Up to 500 m2/m3 Advantage ease of modularization and ease operation when wastestreams contain high amounts of fouling agents and/or solutions entering the...

Plate and frame forward osmosis membrane modules

Plate & frame modules made from flat sheet forward osmosis membranes Plate & frame (stacked) FO module summary Packing density typically below 100 m2/m3 Advantage ease of operation when waste streams contain high amounts of fouling...
Forward osmosis membrane modules

The 4 different designs of forward osmosis (FO) membrane modules

An overview of the 4 different types of forward osmosis (FO) membrane modules FO membrane modules come in 4 generic design variants, namely the plate & frame module, the spiral wound module,...
Relationship between forward osmosis membrane structure and performance

The relationship between forward osmosis membrane structure and performance by Tiraferri et. al. 2011

Why Tiraferri et. al. 2011 is a must read within the field of forward osmosis membrane development. In their article "Relating performance of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes to support layer formation...