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Water scarcity in 2025

How forward osmosis can help cut energy usage in industrial water treatment processes

The main challenge with today's water treatment technologies Today's water treatment technologies are effective but not always efficient. As a result, considerably more energy will be needed to replenish ever dwindling fresh...
An all-encompassing review of the forward osmosis technology anno 2012

An all-encompassing review of forward osmosis technologies anno 2012 by Zhao et. al.

Why Zhao et. al. 2012 is one of the best recent review articles on forward osmosis technologies In their article “Recent developments in forward osmosis: Opportunities and challenges ” from 2012, Zhao...

Water filtration by forward and reverse osmosis explained in 4 paragraphs

The shortest possible explanation of water filtration, forward osmosis, and reverse osmosis - here's our attempt Membrane based water filtration systems and processes require energy to extract clean water from impaired water...

Draw solutions and their recovery methods for dairy and food industries – a brief...

Introduction Currently, Forward Osmosis (FO) is well suited for applications in which water needs to be removed in a gentle manner (e.g. food processing and concentration of valuable such as flavors &...
Forward osmosis is responsible for water uptake in the roots of plants

The principles of forward osmosis (FO)

Forward osmosis, the second law of thermodynamics, and entropy The goal of this article is to give readers a detailed introduction and explanation to the principles of forward osmosis (FO). In addition,...
Schematic diagram illustrating concentration polarization in a forward osmosis membrane

How forward osmosis (FO) performance is limited by concentration polarization

What is concentration polarization and why does it limit forward osmosis membrane performance? Concentration polarization is the build-up of concentration gradients both inside and around forward osmosis membranes during operation. Said gradients...
Relationship between forward osmosis membrane structure and performance

The relationship between forward osmosis membrane structure and performance by Tiraferri et. al. 2011

Why Tiraferri et. al. 2011 is a must read within the field of forward osmosis membrane development. In their article "Relating performance of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes to support layer formation...

Forward osmosis draw solutions and draw solution recovery methods

Draw solutions and draw solution recovery methods are key to unlocking the business potential of forward osmosis I am a membrane enthusiast working in Aquaporin for the past 3 years. Previously, I...
A typical scanning electron microscope cross section of a porous membrane

S-parameter calculations yield negative values – what to do?

What to do when structural parameter equations yield negative S-values? We recently received this question from Maxime, a Phd student at KU Leuven, who is working on TFC membranes for forward osmosis...

ForwardOsmosisTech is proud to play a small role in the making of a Science...

What part of a forward osmosis system would be most vulnerable to sabotage? Confused? Fear not, the email below explains everything. About a week ago, ForwardOsmosisTech received a request for advice from...