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Membrane fouling in forward osmosis processes

Membrane fouling in forward osmosis (FO) processes is reversible

Membrane fouling in reverse osmosis and forward osmosis processes The difference in membrane fouling between reverse osmosis and forward osmosis processes can be attributed to the underlying driving force for water transport. In...

New calculator for estimating structural parameters (S-values)

The structural parameter (S-value) of a forward osmosis membrane determines how severely the membrane is affected by concentration polarization This makes the S-value one of the 3 most important FO membrane performance...
Forward osmosis membrane modules

The 4 different designs of forward osmosis (FO) membrane modules

An overview of the 4 different types of forward osmosis (FO) membrane modules FO membrane modules come in 4 generic design variants, namely the plate & frame module, the spiral wound module,...

Water filtration by forward and reverse osmosis explained in 4 paragraphs

The shortest possible explanation of water filtration, forward osmosis, and reverse osmosis - here's our attempt Membrane based water filtration systems and processes require energy to extract clean water from impaired water...
forward osmosis tubular module

Tubular forward osmosis membrane modules

Tubular modules made from tubular forward osmosis membranes Tubular module summary Packing density Up to 500 m2/m3 Advantage ease of modularization and ease operation when wastestreams contain high amounts of fouling agents and/or solutions entering the...
A typical scanning electron microscope cross section of a porous membrane

Forward osmosis (FO) membrane designs and materials

Asymmetric cellulose acetate and cellulose triacetate based forward osmosis membranes formed by phase inversion (both support membrane and active layer) Before proceeding with the main content sections of this article, we would...
forward osmosis hollow fiber module

Hollow fiber forward osmosis membrane modules

Hollow fibre modules made from hollow fibre forward osmosis membranes Hollow fibre module summary Packing density up to 1600 m2/m3 Advantage ideally suitable for high volume applications due to high packing density and resulting small module...
An all-encompassing review of the forward osmosis technology anno 2012

An all-encompassing review of forward osmosis technologies anno 2012 by Zhao et. al.

Why Zhao et. al. 2012 is one of the best recent review articles on forward osmosis technologies In their article “Recent developments in forward osmosis: Opportunities and challenges ” from 2012, Zhao...
forward osmosis spiral wound module

Spiral wound forward osmosis membrane modules

Spiral wound modules made from flat sheet forward osmosis membranes Spiral wound module summary Packing density up to 600 m2/m3 Advantage suitable for large-volume applications due to high packing density and resulting small membrane footprint Disadvantage membrane fouling...

NF-type FO membranes can potentially improve the commercial relevance of FO-based water treatment

Could an FO membrane be designed to extract both water and selected solutes from wastewater streams? Conventional forward osmosis membranes are designed to extract water...