An all-encompassing review of the forward osmosis technology anno 2012

An all-encompassing review of forward osmosis technologies anno 2012 by Zhao et. al.

Why Zhao et. al. 2012 is one of the best recent review articles on forward osmosis technologies In their article “Recent developments in forward osmosis: Opportunities and challenges ” from 2012, Zhao...

Overview of concentration polarization effects in forward osmosis membranes by McCutcheon et. al. 2006

Why McCutcheon et. al. 2006 is a must read within the field of forward osmosis R&D In their article "Influence of concentrative and dilutive internal concentration polarization on flux behaviour in forward...
Schematic diagram illustrating concentration polarization in a forward osmosis membrane

How forward osmosis (FO) performance is limited by concentration polarization

What is concentration polarization and why does it limit forward osmosis membrane performance? Concentration polarization is the build-up of concentration gradients both inside and around forward osmosis membranes during operation. Said gradients...
Schematic diagram of a forward osmosis membrane in action

Forward osmosis (FO) membranes and membrane processes

Q: What is a membrane? In the context of the water treatment industry, a membrane is a thin, porous structure that can be used as a selective barrier between two aqueous solutions...
Forward osmosis is responsible for water uptake in the roots of plants

The principles of forward osmosis (FO)

Forward osmosis, the second law of thermodynamics, and entropy The goal of this article is to give readers a detailed introduction and explanation to the principles of forward osmosis (FO). In addition,...