Category Archives: Scientific concepts

The difference between a PRO process and the PRO membrane orientation mode

PRO process vs. PRO membrane orientation mode – a question from one of our readers [...]

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How forward osmosis can help cut energy usage in industrial water treatment processes

The main challenge with today’s water treatment technologies Today’s water treatment technologies are effective but [...]

Membrane fouling in forward osmosis (FO) processes is reversible

Membrane fouling in reverse osmosis and forward osmosis processes The difference in membrane fouling between [...]

The relationship between forward osmosis membrane structure and performance by Tiraferri et. al. 2011

Why Tiraferri et. al. 2011 is a must read within the field of forward osmosis [...]

An all-encompassing review of forward osmosis technologies anno 2012 by Zhao et. al.

Why Zhao et. al. 2012 is one of the best recent review articles on forward [...]

Overview of concentration polarization effects in forward osmosis membranes by McCutcheon et. al. 2006

Why McCutcheon et. al. 2006 is a must read within the field of forward osmosis [...]

How forward osmosis (FO) performance is limited by concentration polarization

What is concentration polarization and why does it limit forward osmosis membrane performance? Concentration polarization [...]

Forward osmosis (FO) membranes and membrane processes

Q: What is a membrane? In the context of the water treatment industry, a membrane [...]

The principles of forward osmosis (FO)

Forward osmosis, the second law of thermodynamics, and entropy The goal of this article is [...]