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Scientific concepts

New calculator for estimating structural parameters (S-values)

The structural parameter (S-value) of a forward osmosis membrane determines how severely the membrane is affected by concentration polarization This makes the S-value one of the 3 most important FO membrane performance...

ForwardOsmosisTech’s guide to measuring FO membrane performance

ForwardOsmosisTech has made an extensive guide on how to determine FO membrane performance in a standardized way And we're very proud of our most recent work. The guide covers the following topics: Membrane form...

ForwardOsmosisTech is proud to play a small role in the making of a Science...

What part of a forward osmosis system would be most vulnerable to sabotage? Confused? Fear not, the email below explains everything. About a week ago, ForwardOsmosisTech received a request for advice from...
FO mode vs PRO mode

The difference between a PRO process and the PRO membrane orientation mode

PRO process vs. PRO membrane orientation mode - a question from one of our readers   Recently, ForwardOsmosisTech received the following email from one our readers: Hi I'm really confused, and have one question about...
Water scarcity in 2025

How forward osmosis can help cut energy usage in industrial water treatment processes

The main challenge with today's water treatment technologies Today's water treatment technologies are effective but not always efficient. As a result, considerably more energy will be needed to replenish ever dwindling fresh...
Membrane fouling in forward osmosis processes

Membrane fouling in forward osmosis (FO) processes is reversible

Membrane fouling in reverse osmosis and forward osmosis processes The difference in membrane fouling between reverse osmosis and forward osmosis processes can be attributed to the underlying driving force for water transport. In...
Relationship between forward osmosis membrane structure and performance

The relationship between forward osmosis membrane structure and performance by Tiraferri et. al. 2011

Why Tiraferri et. al. 2011 is a must read within the field of forward osmosis membrane development. In their article "Relating performance of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes to support layer formation...
An all-encompassing review of the forward osmosis technology anno 2012

An all-encompassing review of forward osmosis technologies anno 2012 by Zhao et. al.

Why Zhao et. al. 2012 is one of the best recent review articles on forward osmosis technologies In their article “Recent developments in forward osmosis: Opportunities and challenges ” from 2012, Zhao...

Overview of concentration polarization effects in forward osmosis membranes by McCutcheon et. al. 2006

Why McCutcheon et. al. 2006 is a must read within the field of forward osmosis R&D In their article "Influence of concentrative and dilutive internal concentration polarization on flux behaviour in forward...
Schematic diagram illustrating concentration polarization in a forward osmosis membrane

How forward osmosis (FO) performance is limited by concentration polarization

What is concentration polarization and why does it limit forward osmosis membrane performance? Concentration polarization is the build-up of concentration gradients both inside and around forward osmosis membranes during operation. Said gradients...