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Scientific concepts

Water filtration by forward and reverse osmosis explained in 4 paragraphs

The shortest possible explanation of water filtration, forward osmosis, and reverse osmosis - here's our attempt Membrane based water filtration systems and processes require energy to extract clean water from impaired water...

BBC Horizons: forward osmosis for industrial wastewater treatment

The concept of using forward osmosis for industrial wastewater treatment was recently covered in a BBC Horizons episode for BBC World News Earlier this year, Sharanjit Leyl from BBC World News visited...
FO mode vs PRO mode

The difference between a PRO process and the PRO membrane orientation mode

PRO process vs. PRO membrane orientation mode - a question from one of our readers   Recently, ForwardOsmosisTech received the following email from one our readers: Hi I'm really confused, and have one question about...

New calculator for estimating structural parameters (S-values)

The structural parameter (S-value) of a forward osmosis membrane determines how severely the membrane is affected by concentration polarization This makes the S-value one of the 3 most important FO membrane performance...
Schematic diagram illustrating concentration polarization in a forward osmosis membrane

How forward osmosis (FO) performance is limited by concentration polarization

What is concentration polarization and why does it limit forward osmosis membrane performance? Concentration polarization is the build-up of concentration gradients both inside and around forward osmosis membranes during operation. Said gradients...
Membrane fouling in forward osmosis processes

Membrane fouling in forward osmosis (FO) processes is reversible

Membrane fouling in reverse osmosis and forward osmosis processes The difference in membrane fouling between reverse osmosis and forward osmosis processes can be attributed to the underlying driving force for water transport. In...
Water scarcity in 2025

How forward osmosis can help cut energy usage in industrial water treatment processes

The main challenge with today's water treatment technologies Today's water treatment technologies are effective but not always efficient. As a result, considerably more energy will be needed to replenish ever dwindling fresh...
A typical scanning electron microscope cross section of a porous membrane

S-parameter calculations yield negative values – what to do?

What to do when structural parameter equations yield negative S-values? We recently received this question from Maxime, a Phd student at KU Leuven, who is working on TFC membranes for forward osmosis...
Relationship between forward osmosis membrane structure and performance

The relationship between forward osmosis membrane structure and performance by Tiraferri et. al. 2011

Why Tiraferri et. al. 2011 is a must read within the field of forward osmosis membrane development. In their article "Relating performance of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes to support layer formation...

Draw solutions and their recovery methods for dairy and food industries – a brief...

Introduction Currently, Forward Osmosis (FO) is well suited for applications in which water needs to be removed in a gentle manner (e.g. food processing and concentration of valuable such as flavors &...