FO mode vs PRO mode

The difference between a PRO process and the PRO membrane orientation mode

PRO process vs. PRO membrane orientation mode - a question from one of our readers   Recently, ForwardOsmosisTech received the following email from one our readers: Hi I'm really confused, and have one question about...
Efficiency of forward osmosis desalination by McGovern et. al. 2014

Efficiency of forward osmosis desalination by McGovern et. al. 2014

Article suggesting that forward osmosis is not energy efficient compared to reverse osmosis gains social media attention On June 21st 2014, McGovern, a post-doc at MIT's  Department of Mechanical engineering, and co-workers...
IDA FO webinar: Membrane Brine Concentrator

IDA forward osmosis webinar with focus on Oasys Water

Dr. Nathan Hancock, senior director of R&D for Oasys Water, shares his thoughts on forward osmosis based systems for water treatment. In a recent IDA YLP (International Desalination Association Young Leaders Programme)...
Water scarcity in 2025

How forward osmosis can help cut energy usage in industrial water treatment processes

The main challenge with today's water treatment technologies Today's water treatment technologies are effective but not always efficient. As a result, considerably more energy will be needed to replenish ever dwindling fresh...
fertigation by means of fertilizer driven forward osmosis

The use of fertilizer drawn forward osmosis for fertigation

The use of fertilizer drawn forward osmosis for fertigation - a real FO application or a pipe dream? Fertigation is an agricultural irrigation process where water soluble fertilizers or soil improvement products...
Membrane fouling in forward osmosis processes

Membrane fouling in forward osmosis (FO) processes is reversible

Membrane fouling in reverse osmosis and forward osmosis processes The difference in membrane fouling between reverse osmosis and forward osmosis processes can be attributed to the underlying driving force for water transport. In...
forward osmosis hollow fiber module

Hollow fiber forward osmosis membrane modules

Hollow fibre modules made from hollow fibre forward osmosis membranes Hollow fibre module summary Packing density up to 1600 m2/m3 Advantage ideally suitable for high volume applications due to high packing density and resulting small module...
forward osmosis spiral wound module

Spiral wound forward osmosis membrane modules

Spiral wound modules made from flat sheet forward osmosis membranes Spiral wound module summary Packing density up to 600 m2/m3 Advantage suitable for large-volume applications due to high packing density and resulting small membrane footprint Disadvantage membrane fouling...
forward osmosis tubular module

Tubular forward osmosis membrane modules

Tubular modules made from tubular forward osmosis membranes Tubular module summary Packing density Up to 500 m2/m3 Advantage ease of modularization and ease operation when wastestreams contain high amounts of fouling agents and/or solutions entering the...

Plate and frame forward osmosis membrane modules

Plate & frame modules made from flat sheet forward osmosis membranes Plate & frame (stacked) FO module summary Packing density typically below 100 m2/m3 Advantage ease of operation when waste streams contain high amounts of fouling...