Forward osmosis membrane modules

The 4 different designs of forward osmosis (FO) membrane modules

An overview of the 4 different types of forward osmosis (FO) membrane modules FO membrane modules come in 4 generic design variants, namely the plate & frame module, the spiral wound module,...
An all-encompassing review of the forward osmosis technology anno 2012

An all-encompassing review of forward osmosis technologies anno 2012 by Zhao et. al.

Why Zhao et. al. 2012 is one of the best recent review articles on forward osmosis technologies In their article “Recent developments in forward osmosis: Opportunities and challenges ” from 2012, Zhao...
Forward osmosis system commercialization

Forward osmosis system design

An introduction to forward osmosis system design In any given real life application, forward osmosis membrane performance will be quantified by the water flux Jw, the reverse salt flux Js, and the...
selection of inorganic draw solutes for forward osmosis applications

Selection of inorganic draw solutes for forward osmosis applications by Achilli et. al. 2010

Why Achilli et. al. 2010 is a must read within the field of forward osmosis R&D In their article “Selection of inorganic-based draw solutions for forward osmosis applications” from 2010, Achilli and...
Forward osmosis system commercialization

Why is it challenging to commercialize forward osmosis technologies?

Challenges when commercializing forward osmosis technologies Water treatment systems based on forward osmosis membrane technologies are situated very early in the introduction stage of the product life cycle, and have been so...
Commercialization drivers in the water treatment market

Commercialization drivers in today’s water treatment market

Increased productivity is the main commercialization driver  in today's water treatment market We - humanity - find ourselves in a situation where, in order to solve the water challenges we have created...
Forward osmosis system commercialization

Forward osmosis systems and their commercialization opportunities

Review of commercialization opportunities for forward osmosis systems Today, FO based systems are primarily used in niche applications where traditional pressure driven filtration membranes cannot be used. The US based company Hydration...
Hybrid FO system design for fresh water permeate production

Hybrid forward osmosis systems for desalination of seawater and wastewater treatment

General classification of forward osmosis systems and their applications FO systems can be divided into two broad categories, namely stand-alone FO systems and hybrid FO systems. Here, hybrid FO systems are described...
Stand-alone FO system for feed stream concentration and draw stream dilution

Stand-alone forward osmosis systems for low energy water extraction and osmotic power production

General classification of forward osmosis systems and their applications FO systems can be divided into two broad categories, namely stand-alone FO systems and hybrid FO systems. Here, stand-alone FO systems are described...