forward osmosis spiral wound module

Spiral wound forward osmosis membrane modules

Spiral wound modules made from flat sheet forward osmosis membranes Spiral wound module summary Packing density up to 600 m2/m3 Advantage suitable for large-volume applications due to high packing density and resulting small membrane footprint Disadvantage membrane fouling...
forward osmosis tubular module

Tubular forward osmosis membrane modules

Tubular modules made from tubular forward osmosis membranes Tubular module summary Packing density Up to 500 m2/m3 Advantage ease of modularization and ease operation when wastestreams contain high amounts of fouling agents and/or solutions entering the...

Plate and frame forward osmosis membrane modules

Plate & frame modules made from flat sheet forward osmosis membranes Plate & frame (stacked) FO module summary Packing density typically below 100 m2/m3 Advantage ease of operation when waste streams contain high amounts of fouling...
Forward osmosis membrane modules

The 4 different designs of forward osmosis (FO) membrane modules

An overview of the 4 different types of forward osmosis (FO) membrane modules FO membrane modules come in 4 generic design variants, namely the plate & frame module, the spiral wound module,...
An all-encompassing review of the forward osmosis technology anno 2012

An all-encompassing review of forward osmosis technologies anno 2012 by Zhao et. al.

Why Zhao et. al. 2012 is one of the best recent review articles on forward osmosis technologies In their article “Recent developments in forward osmosis: Opportunities and challenges ” from 2012, Zhao...
Forward osmosis system commercialization

Forward osmosis system design

An introduction to forward osmosis system design In any given real life application, forward osmosis membrane performance will be quantified by the water flux Jw, the reverse salt flux Js, and the...
selection of inorganic draw solutes for forward osmosis applications

Selection of inorganic draw solutes for forward osmosis applications by Achilli et. al. 2010

Why Achilli et. al. 2010 is a must read within the field of forward osmosis R&D In their article “Selection of inorganic-based draw solutions for forward osmosis applications” from 2010, Achilli and...
Forward osmosis system commercialization

Why is it challenging to commercialize forward osmosis technologies?

Challenges when commercializing forward osmosis technologies Water treatment systems based on forward osmosis membrane technologies are situated very early in the introduction stage of the product life cycle, and have been so...
Commercialization drivers in the water treatment market

Commercialization drivers in today’s water treatment market

Increased productivity is the main commercialization driver  in today's water treatment market We - humanity - find ourselves in a situation where, in order to solve the water challenges we have created...
Forward osmosis system commercialization

Forward osmosis systems and their commercialization opportunities

Review of commercialization opportunities for forward osmosis systems Today, FO based systems are primarily used in niche applications where traditional pressure driven filtration membranes cannot be used. The US based company Hydration...