Home Membrane technologies

Membrane technologies

forward osmosis spiral wound module

Spiral wound forward osmosis membrane modules

Spiral wound modules made from flat sheet forward osmosis membranes Spiral wound module summary Packing density up to 600 m2/m3 Advantage suitable for large-volume applications due to high packing density and resulting small membrane footprint Disadvantage membrane fouling...
forward osmosis tubular module

Tubular forward osmosis membrane modules

Tubular modules made from tubular forward osmosis membranes Tubular module summary Packing density Up to 500 m2/m3 Advantage ease of modularization and ease operation when wastestreams contain high amounts of fouling agents and/or solutions entering the...

Plate and frame forward osmosis membrane modules

Plate & frame modules made from flat sheet forward osmosis membranes Plate & frame (stacked) FO module summary Packing density typically below 100 m2/m3 Advantage ease of operation when waste streams contain high amounts of fouling...
Forward osmosis membrane modules

The 4 different designs of forward osmosis (FO) membrane modules

An overview of the 4 different types of forward osmosis (FO) membrane modules FO membrane modules come in 4 generic design variants, namely the plate & frame module, the spiral wound module,...
Relationship between forward osmosis membrane structure and performance

The relationship between forward osmosis membrane structure and performance by Tiraferri et. al. 2011

Why Tiraferri et. al. 2011 is a must read within the field of forward osmosis membrane development. In their article "Relating performance of thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes to support layer formation...
An all-encompassing review of the forward osmosis technology anno 2012

An all-encompassing review of forward osmosis technologies anno 2012 by Zhao et. al.

Why Zhao et. al. 2012 is one of the best recent review articles on forward osmosis technologies In their article “Recent developments in forward osmosis: Opportunities and challenges ” from 2012, Zhao...
A typical scanning electron microscope cross section of a porous membrane

Forward osmosis (FO) membrane designs and materials

Asymmetric cellulose acetate and cellulose triacetate based forward osmosis membranes formed by phase inversion (both support membrane and active layer) Before proceeding with the main content sections of this article, we would...